discount dr martens uk Anxiety in Sport
Is there an optimal level of anxiety for competing in sport?
We would like to thank you for choosing our group to conduct the preliminary research for your article on anxiety in sport.
We have compiled extensive research on historical theories, standardized tests, treatments and prior experiments to provide you with a comprehensive outlook on the topic. The annotated bibliography below contains videos, books, websites and primary journal articles for your reference as you take the next steps in the writing process.
Chirag, Lisa, Francesca,
Leo KellyWhat is anxiety?
Anxiety is a mild fear reaction toward some stimulus. Anxiety is prevalent in even the best of athletes due to the immense pressures associated with professional sports.
Zvolensky, M. J., Lejuez, C. W., Eifert, G. H. (2000). Prediction and control: operational definitions for the experimental analysis of anxiety. This is particularly important for studying anxiety because the stimulus is predictable and controlled in contrast to unpredictable and uncontrolled. These operational definitions are important to note when reading studies that have been conducted (as you will see below) and when conducting your own studies. You should use these terms when writing about the studies you read about.
Onset Prediction when a stimulus precedes the event which causes anxiety. As a result, in the future onset of the stimulus results allows the subject to predict the event that will cause anxiety.
Onset Control when the subject completely avoids or delays the onset of an anxiety causing event with a known stimulus by prevention.
Offset Prediction when a stimulus precedes the end of an event. Future signaling through this stimulus allows the subject to predict the end of the anxiety causing event.
Offset Control when the subject completely ends/rejects the stimulus that causes the reaction to the anxiety causing event.
According to statistics Canada,
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is the main anxiety disorder. Statistics Canada defines disorder as the experience of excessive worry and anxiety. Individuals who have this disorder are characterized as those who commonly fear the worst. GAD impacts approximately 3% of the population. Women are slightly more likely to have it. It is more likely to be seen at the adolescent age; however, there is no group that gets impacted significantly more than the others. Some of the symptoms of GAD are: restlessness, fatigue, loss of focus, irritability, loss of sleep etc. Overall,
anxiety affects the general public as it affects athletes just to different extents.
Why do we get anxious/nervous?
Science, ASAP. (2014, Feb 9). Essentially, when faced with this certain stimulus, the pituitary gland sends a signal to the adrenal gland on the kidney. Here, adrenaline is released. Primarily, adrenaline will activate your fight or flight response increasing your heart rate,
dilating your pupils, directing of blood and energy to the important organs of the body. There are degrees to which this response is activated. You can have minor fight or flight response (perhaps on a first date) or a more major one (from a shark attack). This is the nervous feeling that we get. The video below explains the biological process behind anxiety/nervousness in laymen’s terms.
Brian Mac, an experienced, nationally ranked track and field coach in the United Kingdom, created a website that provides an excellent overview of the relationship between anxiety and performance. The website outlines the major historical theories relating anxiety to performance and serves excellent starting place for getting a basic understanding of the topic. The reference list is comprised of primary literature and is an excellent compilation of research.
Inverted U Hypothesis Describes the relationship between anxiety and performance as an inverted U where increasing anxiety improves performance only up to a point after which additional anxiety is detrimental.
Zone of Optimal Function (ZOF) Theory States each individual has an unique optimal level of anxiety. The coach needs to determine a method that places the athlete within their optimal zone to enable an optimal level of performance.
Drive Theory Links Clark Hull’s Drive Theory to the Inverted U Hypothesis. Athletes need to be “hyped up” to perform their best. An athlete’s “best” is determined by their skill level.
Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety Distinguishes between somatic and cognitive anxiety. There is a negative linear relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance (high anxiety = poor performance), and an inverted U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance. Somatic anxiety should decrease after performance starts; however,
low confidence will cause cognitive anxiety levels to remain high.
The Catastrophe Model Suggests that stress and anxiety have a unique effect on performance depending on the athlete.
The Processing Efficacy Theory Anxiety causes an increase in the amount you worry. This “worry” leads to inefficient performance; however, you are still able to perform with the same effectiveness.